According to the testing task needs, the laboratory has valuable precision instruments and a variety of chemicals, including flammable and corrosive drugs. In addition, the operating process often produces harmful gas or steam. Therefore, the laboratory building structure, environment, interior facilities has its special requirements, such as in the preparation of new laboratory or in reconstructing the original laboratory should be considered.
Lab room is roughly divided into three categories: precision instrument laboratory, chemical analysis laboratory, auxiliary chamber room (office, storage, cylinders, etc.). Lab request from dust, smoke, noise and vibration source of environment. So the laboratory should not be built in the traffic main artery, boiler room, computer room and production workshop nearby (except workshop laboratories).
1. Precision instrument room
Precision instrument room with fire protection, preventing electromagnetic interference, noise, shock, moisture, corrosion and dust prevention, harmful gas prevention function of intrusion, room temperature constant as much as possible. Temperature should be in 15 ~ 30 ℃, the best control conditional in 18 ~ 25 ℃. Humidity from 60% to 70%, can carry double doors and Windows need constant temperature instrument room and air conditioning equipment.
Large precise instrument room power supply voltage should be stable, usually allow voltage fluctuation range is plus or minus 10%. When it is necessary to be equipped with accessories (such as regulated power supply, etc.). Can be used to ensure uninterrupted supply, dual power supply. Should design a special ground, grounding resistance less than 4 Ω.
Chemical analysis room 2.
In the chemical analysis room for chemical processing and analysis of determination of the sample, work often use some small electrical equipment and all kinds of chemical reagents, such as the careless operation also has certain risk, according to the characteristics of the use in the chemical analysis room design should pay attention to the following requirements:
(1) the architectural requirements should be refractory, materials have fire prevention performance; The Windows need to be able to dust; Indoor daylighting is better; The door should be open to outside.
(2) water supply and drainage Water supply to ensure that the necessary water pressure, water quality, and water to meet the needs of the normal operation of instruments and equipment, indoor total valve should be in marked place, easy to operate, sewer should use naisuanjian corrosion of materials, the ground floor drain.
（3）通风设施 由于化验工作中常常会产生有毒或易燃的气体，应有良好的通风条件 。
(3) ventilation Because of the laboratory work often produce toxic or flammable gases, should have good ventilation conditions.
① 全室通风 采用排气扇或通风竖井，换气次数一般为5次/时。
(1) the whole room ventilation Exhaust fan or ventilation shaft, ventilation rate is commonly / 5 times.
② 局部排气罩 一般安装在大型仪器发生有害气体部位的上方。在教学实验室中产生有害气体的上方，设置 局部排气罩以减少室内空气的污染。
(2) local exhaust hood General installation above the harmful gas in large equipment parts. Above the harmful gas in the teaching laboratory, set up the local exhaust hood in order to reduce indoor air pollution.
③ 通风柜 这是实验室常用的一种局部排风设备。内有加热源、水源、照明等装置。
(3) fume hood This is laboratory equipment in a local exhaust. By heat source, water source, such as lighting device.
(4) the gas and electricity Conditional lab can be installed pipeline gas. Laboratory electricity power points with lighting and equipment. Had better use the fluorescent lighting. Equipment utilization, 24 h run appliances such as refrigerator power alone, the rest of the electrical equipment were controlled by master switch, drying oven, high temperature furnace and other electric equipment should have special socket, switch and fuse. Install emergency lights in the corridor and interior, for all of a sudden power failure at night.
（5） 实验台 实验台主要由台面、台下的支架和器皿柜组成，为方便操作，台上可设置药品架，台的两端可安装水槽。
(5) test bench test bench is mainly composed of mesa, the audience's support vessels and counter unit, for the convenience of operation, can be set on the stage drug frame, can be installed on both ends of the tank.
Experimental mesa width 75 CMM, long according to room size, for 150-300 cm, high is 80-85 cm. Mesa commonly used cover, physical and chemical plate, solid core chemical corrosion artificial stone or terrazzo precast slab, etc. Ideal mesa should level off, not easy fracture, corrosion, acid and alkali resistant and solvent heat resistant, not easy to break glass ware, etc.
3. The drug storeroom
Because many chemical reagents are flammable, explosive, poisonous or corrosive materials, so don't buy too much. Storage to store a few recent chemicals to be used, and to conform to the requirements of the storage of dangerous goods safety. To have fire prevention, moisture proof, high temperature, prevent sun point-blank, lightning-proof functions. Drug storage room should be toward the north, dry, well ventilated, ceiling insulation should be shade, doors and Windows should be strong, should be the high window, doors and Windows should be set a visor. The door should open outward. Flammable liquid storage room temperature is generally not more than 28 ℃, explosives are not allowed to more than 30 ℃. A small amount of dangerous goods available iron BanGui or cement tank classified isolated storage. Indoor set exhaust cooling fan, use explosion-proof lighting lamps and lanterns. Equipped with fire equipment. Can half basement for drug storeroom accords with afore-mentioned conditions.
4. The cylinder chamber
Flammable or fuel gas cylinders placed indoor outdoor cylinders, cylinder away from heat, fire and fuel storage room requirements. The cylinder chamber with a noncombustible or flame retardant material structure, wall with blast walls, light roof, doors open outward. To avoid sun exposure and good ventilation. Cylinder is apart from the flame heat more than 10 m, indoor has placed upright hob used in solid cylinders.