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化验室用房的特殊需求有哪些?
发表时间:2017-01-17     阅读次数:     字体: С

根据化验任务需要,化验室有贵重的精密仪器和各种化学药品,其中包括易燃及腐蚀性药品。另外,在操作过程中常产生有害的气体或蒸气。因此,对化验室的房屋结构、环境、室内设施等有其特殊的要求,在筹建新化验室或改建原有化验室时都应考虑。

According to the testing task needs, the laboratory has valuable precision instruments and a variety of chemicals, including flammable and corrosive drugs. In addition, the operating process often produces harmful gas or steam. Therefore, the laboratory building structure, environment, interior facilities has its special requirements, such as in the preparation of new laboratory or in reconstructing the original laboratory should be considered.

化验室用房大致分为三类:精密仪器实验室、化学分析实验室、辅助室(办公室、储藏室、钢瓶室等)。 化验室要求远离灰尘、烟雾、噪音和震动源的环境中。因此化验室不应建在交通要道、锅炉房、机房及生产车间近旁(车间化验室除外)。

Lab room is roughly divided into three categories: precision instrument laboratory, chemical analysis laboratory, auxiliary chamber room (office, storage, cylinders, etc.). Lab request from dust, smoke, noise and vibration source of environment. So the laboratory should not be built in the traffic main artery, boiler room, computer room and production workshop nearby (except workshop laboratories).

1. 精密仪器室

1. Precision instrument room

精密仪器室要求具有防火、防震、防电磁干扰、防噪音、防潮、防腐蚀、防尘、防有害气体侵入的功能,室温尽可能保持恒定。温度应在15~30℃,有条件的最好控制在18~25℃。湿度在60%-70%,需要恒温的仪器室可装双层门窗及空调装置。

Precision instrument room with fire protection, preventing electromagnetic interference, noise, shock, moisture, corrosion and dust prevention, harmful gas prevention function of intrusion, room temperature constant as much as possible. Temperature should be in 15 ~ 30 ℃, the best control conditional in 18 ~ 25 ℃. Humidity from 60% to 70%, can carry double doors and Windows need constant temperature instrument room and air conditioning equipment.
大型精密仪器室的供电电压应稳定,一般允许电压波动范围为±10%。必要时要配备附属设备(如稳压电源等)。为保证供电不间断,可采用双电源供电。应设计有专用地线,接地极电阻小于4Ω。

Large precise instrument room power supply voltage should be stable, usually allow voltage fluctuation range is plus or minus 10%. When it is necessary to be equipped with accessories (such as regulated power supply, etc.). Can be used to ensure uninterrupted supply, dual power supply. Should design a special ground, grounding resistance less than 4 Ω.

2.化学分析室

Chemical analysis room 2.

在化学分析室中进行样品的化学处理和分析测定,工作中常使用一些小型的电器设备及各种化学试剂,如操作不慎也具有一定的危险性,针对这些使用特点,在化学分析室设计上应注意以下要求:

In the chemical analysis room for chemical processing and analysis of determination of the sample, work often use some small electrical equipment and all kinds of chemical reagents, such as the careless operation also has certain risk, according to the characteristics of the use in the chemical analysis room design should pay attention to the following requirements:

(1)建筑要求 建筑应耐火,材料具有防火性能;窗户要能防尘;室内采光要好;门应向外开。

(1) the architectural requirements should be refractory, materials have fire prevention performance; The Windows need to be able to dust; Indoor daylighting is better; The door should be open to outside.

(2)供水和排水 供水要保证必须的水压、水质、和水量以满足仪器设备正常运行的需要,室内总阀门应设在易操作的显著位置,下水道应采用耐酸碱腐蚀的材料,地面应有地漏。

(2) water supply and drainage Water supply to ensure that the necessary water pressure, water quality, and water to meet the needs of the normal operation of instruments and equipment, indoor total valve should be in marked place, easy to operate, sewer should use naisuanjian corrosion of materials, the ground floor drain.

(3)通风设施 由于化验工作中常常会产生有毒或易燃的气体,应有良好的通风条件 。

(3) ventilation Because of the laboratory work often produce toxic or flammable gases, should have good ventilation conditions.

① 全室通风 采用排气扇或通风竖井,换气次数一般为5次/时。

(1) the whole room ventilation Exhaust fan or ventilation shaft, ventilation rate is commonly / 5 times.

② 局部排气罩 一般安装在大型仪器发生有害气体部位的上方。在教学实验室中产生有害气体的上方,设置 局部排气罩以减少室内空气的污染。

(2) local exhaust hood General installation above the harmful gas in large equipment parts. Above the harmful gas in the teaching laboratory, set up the local exhaust hood in order to reduce indoor air pollution.

③ 通风柜 这是实验室常用的一种局部排风设备。内有加热源、水源、照明等装置。

(3) fume hood This is laboratory equipment in a local exhaust. By heat source, water source, such as lighting device.

(4)煤气与供电 有条件的化验室可安装管道煤气。化验室的电源分照明用电和设备用电。照明最好采用荧光灯。设备用电中,24h运行的电器如冰箱单独供电,其余电器设备均由总开关控制,烘箱、高温炉等电热设备应有专用插座、开关及熔断器。在室内及走廊上安装应急灯,备夜间突然停电时使用。

(4) the gas and electricity Conditional lab can be installed pipeline gas. Laboratory electricity power points with lighting and equipment. Had better use the fluorescent lighting. Equipment utilization, 24 h run appliances such as refrigerator power alone, the rest of the electrical equipment were controlled by master switch, drying oven, high temperature furnace and other electric equipment should have special socket, switch and fuse. Install emergency lights in the corridor and interior, for all of a sudden power failure at night.

(5) 实验台 实验台主要由台面、台下的支架和器皿柜组成,为方便操作,台上可设置药品架,台的两端可安装水槽。

(5) test bench test bench is mainly composed of mesa, the audience's support vessels and counter unit, for the convenience of operation, can be set on the stage drug frame, can be installed on both ends of the tank.

实验台面一般宽75cmm,长根据房间尺寸,可为150-300cm,高可为80-85cm。台面常用贴面理化板、实芯理化板、耐腐人造石或水磨石预制板等制成。理想的台面应平整、不易碎裂、耐酸碱及溶剂腐蚀,耐热,不易碰碎玻璃器皿等。

Experimental mesa width 75 CMM, long according to room size, for 150-300 cm, high is 80-85 cm. Mesa commonly used cover, physical and chemical plate, solid core chemical corrosion artificial stone or terrazzo precast slab, etc. Ideal mesa should level off, not easy fracture, corrosion, acid and alkali resistant and solvent heat resistant, not easy to break glass ware, etc.

3.药品储藏室

3. The drug storeroom

由于很多化学试剂属于易燃、易爆、有毒或腐蚀性物品,故不要购置过多。储藏室存放少量近期要用的化学药品,且要符合危险品存放安全要求。要具有防明火、防潮湿、防高温、防日光直射、防雷电的功能。药品储藏室房间应朝北、干燥、通风良好,顶棚应遮阳隔热,门窗应坚固,窗应为高窗,门窗应设遮阳板。门应朝外开。易燃液体储藏室室温一般不许超过28℃,爆炸品不许超过30℃。少量危险品可用铁板柜或水泥柜分类隔离贮存。室内设排气降温风扇,采用防爆型照明灯具。备有消防器材。可以符合上述条件的半地下室为药品储藏室。

Because many chemical reagents are flammable, explosive, poisonous or corrosive materials, so don't buy too much. Storage to store a few recent chemicals to be used, and to conform to the requirements of the storage of dangerous goods safety. To have fire prevention, moisture proof, high temperature, prevent sun point-blank, lightning-proof functions. Drug storage room should be toward the north, dry, well ventilated, ceiling insulation should be shade, doors and Windows should be strong, should be the high window, doors and Windows should be set a visor. The door should open outward. Flammable liquid storage room temperature is generally not more than 28 ℃, explosives are not allowed to more than 30 ℃. A small amount of dangerous goods available iron BanGui or cement tank classified isolated storage. Indoor set exhaust cooling fan, use explosion-proof lighting lamps and lanterns. Equipped with fire equipment. Can half basement for drug storeroom accords with afore-mentioned conditions.

4.钢瓶室

4. The cylinder chamber

易燃或助燃气体钢瓶要求安放在室外的钢瓶室内,钢瓶室要求远离热源、火源及可燃物仓库。钢瓶室要用非燃或难燃材料构造,墙壁用防爆墙,轻质顶盖,门朝外开。要避免阳光照射,并有良好的通风条件。钢瓶距明火热源10m以上,室内设有直立稳固的铁架用于放置钢瓶。

Flammable or fuel gas cylinders placed indoor outdoor cylinders, cylinder away from heat, fire and fuel storage room requirements. The cylinder chamber with a noncombustible or flame retardant material structure, wall with blast walls, light roof, doors open outward. To avoid sun exposure and good ventilation. Cylinder is apart from the flame heat more than 10 m, indoor has placed upright hob used in solid cylinders.

 
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